Issues, Etc.

Articles and book excerpts used in and referred to on Issues, Etc.
United Pentecostal Church
from Charts of Cults, Sects, and Religious Movements

by Dr. H. Wayne House

Facts and History

Topic Current Facts
Membership The United Pentecostal Church International (UPC) based in Hazelwood, Missouri, reported 1.5 million constituents worldwide in 1991. More than 3,635 UPC churches in the United States and Canada were attended by some 500,000 members that included about 7500 active ministers. The UPC also has nine Bible colleges, an orphanage, a rehabilitation center for boys, and a ministry for substance abuse. The foreign missionary budget for 1987 was about $32 million, according to the Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements (p. 863).
Worship UPC services, as in other Pentecostal churches, usually last from one to three hours and include a sermon along with music and singing.

One evangelical missionary has described UPC services as being quite moving: "United Pentecostals really seem to enjoy their meetings. The emotionally charged atmosphere of their church services offers a feeling of joy, of fiesta, and of the sensational (miracles, tongues, healings) that thrills, excites, and lifts these humble believers front the dreariness and drudgery of daily life.... Then there is freedom in their meetings-liberty to pray aloud, to pray all at once, to stand and shout, and to interject an 'amen,' 'hallelujah,' 'praise the Lord,' as they wish.... this liberty is often mentioned by both pastors and members as a major factor in the appeal of their meetings" (Dynamic Religious Movements, p. 234).
Leaders (called general superintendents)
1945 - 1951 Howard A. Goss
1951 - 1967 Arthur T. Morgan
1967 - 1968 Oliver F. Fauss
1968 - 1977 Stanley W. Chambers
1977 - Nathaniel A. Urshan
Publications Word Aflame Press, the UPC's publishing house in Hazelwood was founded in 1945. It produces tracts, church supplies, flyers, and Sunday school materials; it had also published more than 90 books by 1980. The UPC currently produces seven national periodicals, including the Pentecostal Herald and the Global Witness.
General Statement of beliefs At first glance the UPC seems orthodox. Members believe that only one God exists, Jesus rose bodily from the dead, and there is a literal heaven and hell. Additionally, they hold views about the Bible, eschatology, and standards of outward holiness (for example, loving your neighbor as yourself, honesty, not swearing) that are common to many evangelicals.

What separates United Pentecostals from orthodox Christians are their concepts of God and their belief that to be saved one must be baptized in Jesus' name only and speak in tongues. The group also enforces stricter standards of holiness than those found in most evangelical churches, including the length of one's hair (men's short, women's long), abstinence from watching television, and a prohibition against women wearing makeup or jewelry.

Topic History
Howard A. Goss,
The United Pentecostal Church was formed in 1945 through a merger of two Pentecostal groups: the Pentecostal Church, Incorporated (PCI), and the Pentecostal Assemblies of Jesus Christ (PAJC). This merger capped several years of turmoil and doctrinal debate that started shortly after the Pentecostal movement began early in the century.

Howard A. Goss, the first general superintendent of the UPC, had been associated with Charles Parham, who in 1900 founded Bethel Bible College in Topeka. Kansas. The seeds of the Pentecostal movement were planted at Bethel that year when Parham's students convinced him that speaking in tongues was the initial evidence of the baptism of the Holy Spirit. (The students began speaking in tongues on January 1, 1901.) Although the Pentecostal movement didn't actually gain worldwide recognition until the Azusa Street Revival in 1906-9, Parham, who died in 1929, is considered one of the movement's most important early leaders.

In 1906 Goss was appointed field director of the Texas revivals, and even though he resigned after Parharn was arrested for a moral offense, he remained a leader among the Pentecostals and established churches in Texas and Arkansas. Goss became one of the prime movers in organizing the Assemblies of God denomination in 1914. A year earlier, the birth pangs of the UPC began when R. E. McAllister asserted that the singular "name" of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit in Matthew 28:19 was Jesus and that, consequently, baptism should be done in the name of Jesus only and not in the three names of the Trinity.

In 1914, Frank Ewert, another well-known Pentecostal, began teaching that the name of the one true God was Jesus. He soon began rebaptizing numerous Pentacostals in Jesus' name only. (Howard Belt, a Pentecostal minister who endorsed Ewert, eventually rebaptized Goss.) Such actions quickly led to a rift between Pentecostals that culminated in forcing all "oneness" ministers out of the Assemblies of God.

The displaced ministers responded by forming their own organizations which either folded or merged with one another. The formation of the UPC in 1945 made it the largest of the 'Jesus Only' or "Oneness" Pentecostal denominations.
Arthur T. Morgan,
Arthur T. Morgan was elected general superintendent of the UPC after Goss died in 1951. During his term a larger UPC headquarters was purchased (1952) and expanded (1954). He died in 1967.
Oliver F. Eauss,
Oliver F. Fauss was elected to fill Morgan's position on a temporary basis.
Stanley W.
Stanley Chambers was elected general superintendent in 1968. His term saw the construction of a brand new two-story headquarters for the UPC in 1970.
Nathaniel A. Urshan,
The UPC is currently led by Nathaniel A. Urshan, the son of an early Oneness leader named A. D. Urshan. The UPC continues to thrive and gain converts under its current leaderhip.


The Doctrine of Revelation
Position Support Orthodox Response
The Bible is the only source of doctrin. It is God's Word. The Preamble of the Articles of Faith of the United Pentecostal Church states, "The Bible is the only God-given authority which man possesses; therefore, all doctrine, faith, hope, and all instruction for the church must be based upon, and harmonize with, the Bible" (Meet the United Pentecostal Church International, p. 46).

"In every United Pentecostal church pulpit the Word of God is honored and proclaimed to be infallible, the message of eternal life, to be believed and obeyed' (ibid., p. 107).

"The Bible is the inspired Word of God, giving a true history of the creation of heaven, earth, and humanity and containing a correct prophecy of the ages to come regarding heaven, earth, and the destiny of humanity. Moreover, there is no salvation outside of what is taught in its pages" (The Apostles Doctrine, p. 4).
These are orthodox statements.

The Doctrine of God - The Trinity
Position Support Orthodox Response
There is only one God. "Biblical Christianity strongly held to the truth of One God... to allow more than one God would be to contradict God's Word and be idolatry, false doctrine, and polytheism' (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course Theology, Book Two of Five, p. 54).

"There is only one God (Deuteronomy 6:4). He is the Creator of heaven and earth, and of all living beings. He has revealed Himself to humanity as the Father (Creator), in the Son (Savior), and as the Holy Ghost (indwelling Spirit)" (The Apostles Doctrine, p. 4).
These are orthodox, onotheistic statements.
United Pentecostals call their theology "Oneness" because they believe a plurality of persons does not exist within God's nature. In other words, God exists only as one "person." "God is absolutely and indivisibly one.... His eternal nature contains no essential distinctions or divisions.... Any plurality associated with God is only a plurality of attributes, titles, roles, manifestations, modes of activity, or relationships to man" (Essential Doctrines of the Bible, p. 7)

"In contrast to trinitarianism, Oneness asserts that God is indivisibly one in number with no distnction of persons.. (Meet the United Pentecostal Church International, p. 66).

"The Oneness doctrine can be presented succinctly in two propositions: (1) there is one indivisible God with no distinction of persons; (2) Jesus Christ is all the fulness of the Godhead incarnate. All titles of the Deity can be applied to him and all aspects of the divine personality are mani-fest in Him" (Essentials of Oneness Theology, p. 8).
This is an ancient heresy known by a number of different names, including Modalism, Monarchianism, and especially Sabellianism - after Sabellius, a third-century teacher who prominently championed this doctrinal position. The orthodox position is that the God of the Bible exists as three distinct persons - Father, Son, and Holy Spirit - who are one essence or being sharing all attributes of deity including eternality, infinitude, uncreated spirituality, omniscience, omnipresence, and omnipotence. The doctrine of the Trinity is derived from Scriptures that clearly show different entities (The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit) that are all ascribed all the characteristics of both individual person-hood (intellect, emotions, and will) and a divine nature.
The doctrine of the Trinity is not mentioned in Scripture. Oneness doctrine restores the biblical doctrine of God that was held by the apostles, "Trinitarians sometimes explain that the Old Testament monotheistic passages merely speak of perfect agreement and unity among the trinity, excluding a plurality of false deities but not a plurality of persons in the true God. This view would allow outright polytheism, however, for many distinct deities could exist in perfect harmony. Neither testament uses the word trinity or associates the word three or the word persons with God in any significant way" (Meet the United Pentecostal Church International, p. 58).

"The Oneness doctrine is important because it upholds biblical Christianity in at least three specific ways: (1) It restores biblical terms and patterns of thought on the subject of the Godhead ... (ibid., p. 67),
Often those who reject the Trinity do so partly on the grounds that the term is not found in the Bible. It is true that the word Trinity (Latin trinitas, three in one) is not found in Scripture, since it arose from a theological attempt to explain the biblical teaching. This doctrine derives from the combination of Scripture paassages that present the idea that three persons simultaneously exist within the monotheistic God. Several passages implicitly allow for the doctrine (Gen. 1:26- 27; 11:5-9; Ps 2:7; Isa 6:8, 9), while various passages explicitly teach the idea (Mt 3:16-17; 28:19; Jn 17:1-5; 2 Cor 13:14). The attempt to identify these different persons as merely roles played by one person does an injustice to the One God. The three persons are described as distinct from one another and possessing personal attributes, yet in union with one another in one essence. "Roles" or "natures' do not communicate, love, will, or express emotion, but a 'person' does. When the Father and the Son communicate, there is a demand for the two persons to be involved, not two natures. Only persons can express intellect, emotion, and will.
God consists of Jesus only, who Is the Father. God is not three distinct persons. "The term Father refers to God Himself - God in all His deity" (The Oneness of God: Series in Pentecostal Theology, vol. 1, p. 98) The confusion arises in the definition and understanding of personhood versus nature. A person can be described as self-aware and aware of others who are also self-aware, having an intellect, being volitional (having a will), and capable of emotional thought and sensibilities or feelings. A nature is different from a person as it describes the parameters and essence of personal qualities or attributes. The human nature is finite in its intellectual comprehension, whereas God is infinite. The same can be said of all aspects of personality shared by God and mankind. This understanding helps to explain how man can be made in the image of God and yet can never legitimately hope to be God.

Nature can also describe character. God's nature is contrasted with fallen human nature in that God is good and man is evil. Jesus shared man's nature in the person-hood sense, but not in character, as he was without sin.
The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, rather than being three distinct persons within the Godhead, are actually titles that describe the multiple roles played by God as He has progressively revealed Himself to mankind. "The Bible certainly speaks of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, but not as three distinct persons . . . the titles of Father, Son, and Spirit describe God's multiple roles and works. . . . The terms can also be understood in God's revelation to humanity: Father refers to God in family relationship to humanity; Son refers to God in flesh; and Spirit refers to God in activity. For example, one man can have three significant relationships or functions - such as administrator, teacher, and counsellor - and yet be one person in every sense of the word" (Meet the United Pentecostal Church international, pp. 60-61). The idea that God role-plays or assumes modes of function - acting as the Father at one moment, the Holy Spirit at another, and the Son at another time - is why the Oneness groups are called modalists.
The Trinitarian concept that Jehovah God of the Old Testament consists of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit is wrong. "It has been stated by some that Lord, or Jehovah in the Old Testament, is inclusive of three personalities (Father, Son, Holy Ghost). This concept should be avoided for two reasons. First, because scripture plainly declares 'to us there is one Lord . . . Jesus Christ' (1 Cor. 8:6). . . . Secondly . . . when scripture speaks of 'one Lord,' it so obviously means a mathematical one" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Theology, Book Two of Five, p. 99). Again, the confusion arises over the definitions of personhood and nature. The existence of more than one person in the Godhead is arrived at by examining the revelation of God in the Bible and allowing it to speak for itself without having to find an analogy or similar situation in the creation. It is admitted that the harmoniously shared essence of One Eternal Being by three persons is nonanalogous. This is simply to say that God is other than His creation and therefore is totally transcendent and unique in His essential existence.
Trinitarianism Inevitably leads to tritheism (belief in three Gods). "Despite the protests of trinitarians, their doctrine inevitably leads to a practical form of tritheism" (The Oneness of God: Series in Pentecostal Theology, vol. 1, p. 288). The orthodox faith has always embraced monotheism and condemned tritheism.

The Athanasian Creed "And the Catholic faith is this: That we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the substance. For there is one Person of the Father; another of the Son; and another of, the Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is all one; the Glory equal, the Majesty co-eternal. . . . So the Father is God: the Son is God: and the Holy Ghost is God. And yet there are not three Gods: but one God.
The doctrine of the Trinity is unbibilcal. "The doctrine of the Trinity is not a New Testament formulated doctrine" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Theology. Book Two of Five, p. 110).

"Neither testament uses the word trinity or associates the word three or the word persons with God in any significant way" (Meet the United Pentecostal church International, p. 58).
Scriptural examples abound of divine persons interacting and being aware of one another's existence. Jesus refers to Himself and His Father as providing two witnesses (persons who can speak, not natures that cannot speak) for the authentication of His ministry (Jn 5:31-32; 8:16-18). This complies with the Mosaic injunction that everything be confirmed by at least two witnesses. For just a devine nature and a human nature to bear witness would be tantamount to saying in court that your body and your mind, or your physical nature and your nonphysical soul nature, will give two distinct testimonies. The Father is known to have sent the Son (see Jn 3:17; Gal 4:4; 1 Jn 4: 10). This shows that Jesus not only existed, before His earthly life, in eternity with the Father, but that there was an interaction in eternity between the Father and the Son before there ever was a human nature of Jesus. Perhaps most significant is the fact that the Father loves and shows approval of the Son (see Jn 3:35; 17:23-26). People or persons can show love, but natures can't.
The 20th century Pentecostal revival that gave birth to the UPC restored truths that were previously hidden. These truths, regarding the name and nature of Jesus Christ, are now taught in the UPC. The UPC also teaches that One-ness theology was taught by the early church until corrupt Christendom eventually repressed the teaching and misplaced (deliberately destroyed) the documentation that would prove that church fathers taught Oneness theology. "With the coming of the Holy Spirit, the Word of the Lord became a new book. Truths which had been hidden for many years were made clear. In the year 1914 came the revelation on the name of the Lord Jesus Christ . . . . God marvelously confirmed our message as the gospel was preached in its fulness. The power which was hidden in the name of Jesus began to be revealed" (Highlights in Church History, pp. 62-63).

". . . very little is known about these groups (oneness and other groups deemed heretical) of people. Suppressed, ostracized and persecuted greatly, the things they stood for have been, as a whole, conveniently 'misplaced' . . . (Their Story: 20th Century Pentecostals as quoted in Keith Tolbert The Views of Church History Within the United Pentecostal Church International p. 6).
Jesus said that heaven and earth would pass away but not His words. He also said that not "one jot or one tittle" of His law would disappear until all things are fulfilled in it (Mt 5:18 KJV). The UPC would have to contend that all things were somehow fulfilled in order to believe that God allowed His truth to be tampered with. It is a very low view of God's ability to maintain His truth and therefore an insult to God to hold this position. Jude 3 says that 'the faith' was "once for all delivered to the saints." This means that God delivered all the essentials to the faith at one time and doesn't intend to allow them to be "misplaced." The idea that there are missing documents that would prove their case is an illogical argument from silence.
The Doctrine of God - The Diety of Christ
Position Support Orthodox Response
Jesus is God manifested in the flesh. He is truly God and truly man. "One cannot overemphasize the supreme deity of Christ" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Theology, Book Two of Five, p. 114).

"Jesus Christ is the incarnation of the one God" (Meet the United Pentecostal Church International, p. 58).

"Jesus is God with us, the eternally blessed God, the image of the invisible God, God manifest In the flesh, our God and Savior, and the express image of God's substance" (Ibid., p. 59).

"Jesus is both God and man at the same time" (Ibid., p. 63).
These are orthodox statements.
Jesus is God. He is both the Son and the Father. "If there is only one God and that God is the Father (Malachi 2:10), and Jesus is God, then it logically follows that Jesus is the Father" (The Oneness of God: Series in Pentecostal Theology, vol. 1, p. 66).

"Jesus is the Father incarnate. ' His name shall be called . . . The mighty God, The everlasting Father' (Isaiah 9:6). . . . 'I and my Father are one' (John 10:30). . . . 'He that hath seen me hath seen the Father' (John 14:9)" (Meet the United Pentecostal Church International, p. 59).
These statements makes a charade of farce out of the prayers of Christ and the statements made by God the Father throughout the Gospels. Natures don't pray or talk to one another by self-aware persons do. The person Jesus was addressing in the garden of Gethsemane when He asked the cup to be taken from Him was the person of His Father (see Mat 26:39).
Jesus, the man, was God only because the perfect expression, or thoughts of God the Father (Logos/Word), came to dwell in Jesus. In a sense, God the Father was actually Christ. "Jesus is not just a part of God, but all of God is resident in Him" (The Oneness of God: Series in Pentecostal Theology, vol. 1, p. 57)

"God the Father dwelt in the man Christ. . . . The devine nature of Jesus Christ is the Holy Spirit. . . . which is the Spirit of the Father" (Essential Doctrines of the Bible, p. 8).

". . . the deity of Jesus is none other than the Father Himself" (The Oneness of God: Series in Pentecostal Theology, vol. 1, p. 115).
Isaiah 9:6 teaches that Jesus, as the prophesied coming Messiah, would be "Everlasting Father," or more acurately, "Father of eternity." In the ancient mind, one who owned a property could be called the "father of the property," thus Christ would be the Father of eternity or the Creator of the Ages, as Hebrews 1:2 and 11:3 point out. So a reference to "Father" does not prove that He is the "God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" (2 Cor. 1:3).

John 10:30 and 14:9 show that because Jesus exists as the.second person of the indivisible being known as God, He can make the statements from that vantage point. The context "No one comes to the Father except through me" (Jn 14:6) seems to suggest a mediatorial position in which Jesus is the perfect representation of the Father to men. But the idea that Christ had a dual personality is unscriptural. In Lectures in Systematic Theology, Henry C. Thiessen writes, "Christ's personality resides in His divine nature, because the Son did not unite with a human person but with a human nature." In Jesus Christ Our Lord, John Wahvoord writes, "Christ at the same moment has seemingly contradictory qualities. He can be weak and Omnipotent, increasing in knowledge and Omniscient, finite and infinite . . . . There is evidence that human nature developed and with it a human self consciousness came into play" (pp. 116, 118). It was the Logos, whom the Father sent, that did all of this and not the Father Himself.
The Doctrine of God - The Humanity of Christ
Position Support Orthodox Response
The divinity of God the Father united with the human body that was formed in the Virgin Mary's womb. Hence, Jesus was not only divine, but also human. "Jesus, the Son, received a set of chromosomes from God, the Father. The single cell which encased these tiny bands which would help determine His characteristics had been the glorious image through which God ruled the universe. . . . This cell. . . .united with another single cell in the womb of Mary, and thus the Son of man was conceived." (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Theology, Book Two of Five, p. 101). This is an orthodox statement.
The Word mentioned in John 1:1 is not a reference to Jesus before His incarnation. The term Word describes only the mind of God, or a thought in the mind of God. The Word is God's self-revelation, self-expression, or self-disclosure. Before the Incarnation, the Word was the unexpressed thought, plan, or mind of God. In the beginning, the Word was with God, not as a separate person but as God Himself - pertaining to and belonging to God much like a man and his word. In the fullness of time God put flesh on the Word; He revealed Himself in flesh" (Meet the United Pentecostal Church International, P 64). In John 1:1-5 the Word is said to be "with God" and indeed "was God." The language allows for no other conclusion than that the person spoken of is someone who can be said to be in some way alongside of or "with" the person of God while being God at the same time. The doctrine of the Trinity is the only logical explanation of this passage.
Because Jesus was both God the Father and man, His two natures could interact with each other. This interaction is seen when Jesus is praying to the Father. It is not one person praying to another; it is Jesus' human nature conversing with His divine nature. "While Jesus was both God and man at the same time, sometimes He acted from, the human viewpoint and sometimes from the divine viewpoint. As Father, He sometimes spoke from His devine self-consciousness; as Son He sometimes spoke from His human self-conciousness" (Essential Doctrines of the Bible, p. 9). Self-aware persons communicate with one another, not natures.
The Doctrine of God - The Resurrection of Christ
Position Support Orthodox Response
Jesus Christ was raised bodily from the grave. "Of all the great truths of God's Word, there is none so meaningful to the human as the resurrection of Jesus Christ . . . . The resurrection is the culminated result of Christ's death and burial - and completes what is called the Gospel" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Christology, Book Three of Five, p. 55). This is an orthodox statement.
The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit
Position Support Orthodox Response
The Holy Spirit Is the Father, rather than a person distinct from the Father. "The Bible identifies the Father and the Holy Spirit as one and the same being. The title of Holy Spirit simply describes what the Father is . . . The Holy Spirit is literally the Father of Jesus, since Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit" (Meet the United Pentecostal Church International, p. 61). Jesus asked the Father to send the Holy Spirit to the believers (Jn 14:16, 26; 15:26). This action clearly speaks of the three persons interacting with each other. The Holy Spirit proceeds from both the Father and the Son (Jn 14:26; 15:26; Ac 2:33; Heb 9:14).
Because the Holy Spirit (the Father that was in Jesus) was also Christ Himself (that aspect of Him that was divine), then the Holy Spirit is also Jesus. "The Holy Spirit is literally the Spirit that was in Jesus Christ" (Meet the United Pentecostal Church International, pp. 59-60).

"When Christ in reference to the Holy Ghost, promised 'another comforter' (Jn. 14:16), they did not understand this to be another person. The 'another' was the Spirit of the divine Christ that would dwell in them, as opposed to His physical bodily presence....

"Christ defines Himself as 'the truth' (Jn. 14:6), then goes on to define the Holy Ghost as 'the Spirit of truth' (Jn. 14:17). He further states. . . 'I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you' (Jn. 14:17, 18). He here asserts that he (Christ) will return in spirit form and be their comforter" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Pneumatology, Book Three of Five, P 2).
"Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever" (Heb. 13:8). This tells us that His nature has been the same throughout His eternal existence. Another direct statement about His eternal nature is that "God is love" (Jn 4:8). The Greek word for "love" here is agape, a self-sacrificing and outgoing concern for another. This means that Jesus is eternally unselfish and selflessly concerned with a person outside of Himself. How can this he if He was the only person who existed before other persons were created? He would have been just the opposite of agape in self-absorbed narcissism. The doctrine of the Trinity resolves this issue: The persons of the Triune God loved one another throughout all eternity past.
The Doctrine of Man and Sin
Position Support Orthodox Response
Through Adam, every person is born in sin and is condemned to physical as well as spiritual death (separation from God) because of Adam. ". . .every single individual born onto earth is born with the curse of sin already upon them. . . . With the fall of Adam, this curse of sin has come upon the entire race" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course Soteriology, Book Four of Five, p. 6).

"All men, regardless of race, are utterly guilty before God" (Ibid., p. 7).
These are orthodox statements.
The Doctrine of Salvation
Position Support Orthodox Response
Christ's death atoned for the sins of the world and is effective for those who accept Him as their Lord and Savior. "The gospel . . . is the good news of the coming of Jesus Christ and what He has accomplished. . . through the shedding of His blood in His sacrificial death, the full payment for the penalty of sin has been provided. . . . Christ's death at Calvary was the ultimate sacrifice for the sins of the world, and effects salvation for all who accept Him" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Soteriology, Book Four of Five, p. 15). This is an orthodox statement.
We must take three steps to obtain salvation. We must (1) have faith and repentance; (2) be baptized with water in the name of Jesus only (because Jesus Is the name of God - Father, Son, and Holy Ghost - and Matthew 28:19 tells us to baptize in the name (singular) of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost); and (3) receive the Holy SpirIt, which is evidenced by speaking in tongues. (1) - "The necessity of believing in order to receive salvation is repeatedly emphasized throughout scripture. . . .Repentance has always. . . .been a requirement for approaching God" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Soteriology, Book Four of Five, pp. 38, 42).

(2) - "...scripture portrays repentance and baptism as being inextricably bound together in the process of remitting sins (Mk. 16:16, Lk. 24:47, Acts 2:38)" (Ibid., p. 61).

". . . the curse of sin stems from a dual source. First, from birth, the sinner carries the curse of sin which is come upon the whole race from Adam . . . Secondly, he carries the curse of sin because of his committed sins. . . when one repents, he repents of sins committed. . . . When one is baptized, he is removed from the curse of his inherited Adamic family - and born (of the water) into a new family" (Ibid., pp. 60-61).

"Christian baptism is to be administered 'in the name of Jesus.' This means to invoke the name Jesus orally at water baptism" (The New Birth: Series In Pentecostal Theology, vol. 2, p. 156).

". . . the fact is emphatically clear in scripture that the entirety of the Godhead . . . has one name and one name only, and that one name is JESUS" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Soteriology, Book Four of Five, p. 49).

"Christ himself declared, 'I am come in my Father's Name'. . . .He also laid claim to the same name Jehovah. . . .Concerning the name of the Holy Ghost, suffice it to quote Christ: 'But the Comforter which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name . . . (Jn. 14:26)" (Ibid., pp. 51, 52).

"Today, just as in the New Testament, believers speak with new tongues when they receive the Holy Ghost and enter into the body of Christ" (Meet the United Pentecostal Church International, p. 53).
Evangelical Christianity has always contended that faith is the means through which one is justified. Repentance - turning from Sin - is merely the counterpart of faith - turning toward God.

Baptism is in the name of the triune God - Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Baptism in the name of Jesus - which is mentioned in the book of Acts - is only a statement of identification with the risen Lord. The Didache, a manual of the faith dating from the late first century A.D., has both the trinitarian baptismal formula and mention of baptism in the name of Jesus. The name of the Father and Son and Holy Ghost would be YAHWEH, not Jesus, and is equivalent to the Greek Kurios, or "Lord," in the neew Testament. Jesus is Kurios.

The reception of the Holy Spirit occurs at salvation but in no way is speaking in tongues viewed in the New Testament as a necessary result of this indwelling. Speaking in tongues occurs only three places in the book of Acts and in each instance serves as a sign of God's movement among a new group of people in the ancient world, not as evidence of personal salvation.
The Doctrine of Rewards and Punishment
Position Support Orthodox Response
Those who are saved will not be damned, but instead dwell with God for all eternity. Those who reject salvation through Jesus Christ will suffer eternal conscious punishment in hell. "All whose names are not found written in the book of life will be cast into the lake of fire" (Meet the United Pentecostal Church International, p. 54).

"Physical death is not cessation of the soul-mind, but is rather separation of the soul-mind from the body. The second death (spiritual) is separation of the spirit from God. Neither incorporates the idea of annihilation" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Pneumatology, Book Three of Five, p. 14).
These are orthodox statements.
Those who do not believe Oneness theology are either completely lost or not fully saved. "Sincere profession based on a faulty concept of Christ is not enough; one must believe and obey the gospel. . . . Where does this leave those who have a certain degree of faith in Christ but have not obeyed the full gospel?. . . such people are pre-Pentecost believers, not part of the apostolic church. . . they need to be led to further truth. . . they are in the conception stage and have not yet had the new birth" (The New Birth: Series in Pentecostal Theology, vol. 2, pp. 313-14). The Bible does not allow for a person to be partially saved. Either one is in Christ and justified by His blood or one is unregenerate and perishing. There is no halfway or inbetween state, anymore than one could partially drown or be a "little bit pregnant." You are either born of the Word of God or you are not. "For you have been born again, not of perishable seed, but of imperishable, through the living and enduring word of God" (1 Pet. 1:23).

Interesting and Distinctive Beliefs

Position Support Orthodox Response
To retain salvation, one must remain holy through a variety of standards. "Holiness is esential to salvation. Hebrews 12:14 is just as strong, as true, and as relevant to salvation as the words, 'You must be born again.' . . .After the new birth experience, a conflict arises . . . This battle is a battle for holiness, and we must win it in order to be saved" (In Search of Holiness: Series in Pentecostal Theology, vol. 3, p. 11).

". . . remember that a bad attitude will keep you out of heaven just as surely as any violation of outward holiness" (Ibid., p. 62).
Isaiah 64:6 says, "All our righteous acts are like filthy rags" in God's eyes. Our righteousness, or justification before God, comes by His grace through faith and not through works (Eph. 2:8 - 9). Our right standing before God is based on the gift of Christ's righteousness imputed to us that cannot be earned (see Rom. 4:5 - 6; Tit. 3:5; Eph. 2:4 - 5). John puts it this way: "My dear children, I write this to you so that you will not sin. But if anybody does sin, we have one who speaks to the Father in our defense - Jesus Christ, the Righteous One. He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins" (1 Jn. 2:1 - 2). Our staying saved is the work of Christ on our behalf: it is foolish and insulting to the Spirit of grace to haughtily imagine that our righteousnesses will be more inportant than Christ's in keeping us saved.
UPC standards for holiness are rigid, with restrictions covering television sets, cosmetics, and other commonplace things. For example, on the basis of 1 Corinthians 11:12 - 16, women are not allowed to cut their hair. "We wholeheartedly disaprove of our people indulging in any activities which are not conducive to good Christianity and godly living, such as theaters, dances, mixed bathing, women cutting their hair, make-up, any apparel that immodestly exposes the body, all wordly sports and amusements; and unwholesome radio programs and music. Furthermore, because of the display of all these evils on television, we disapprove of any of our people having television sets in their homes" (Articles of Faith of the United Pentecostal Church International, pp. 9 - 10). Various denominations or congregations have set standards of behavior to define external evidence of sanctification, some of which change according to the culture and the times. Many of these restrictions or prohibitions should be left to a person's conscience and not dictated by church leadership. The apostle Paul never admonished people to separate from the ungodly of the world as a means of sanctification but just the opposite (see 1 Cor. 5:9 - 10).
School students cannot participate in many common activities including sports, dances, and theatrical performances. "We disapprove of school students attending shows, dances, dancing classes, theatres, engaging in school activities against their religious scruples, and wearing gymnasium clothes which immodestly expose the body" (Articles of Faith of the United Pentecostal Church International, p. 14). Where the Word of God is silent, there is liberty in trusting that God's Spirit will lead us in His sovereignty. First John 2:27 states, "As for you, the anointing you received from him remains in you, and you do not need anyone to teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about all things and as that anointing is real, not counterfeit - just as it has taught you, remain in him."
It is ungodly for women to wear jewelry. "Those who are really consecrated to God will not adorn themselves with jewelry. It is vanity - the opposite of humility" (In Search of Holiness: Series in Pentecostal Theology, vol. 3, p. 118).

". . . women believer's are admonished by both Peter Paul to adorn themselves in 'modest apparel', abstaining from attempting to produce physical beauty by use of accoutrements of the world - i.e., jewelry, pearls, trinkets, etc. (1 Tim. 2:9, 10, 1 Pet. 3:3 - 5)" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Soterioligy, Book Four of Five, p. 66).
The apostle Paul asks, "Why should my freedom be judged by another's conscience?" (1 Cor. 10:29). He also says, "Blessed is the man who does not condemn himself by what he approves" (Rom. 14:22). All believers, including those in authority, are fallable and accountable directly to God (Rom. 14:4). Disdaining beautification is as much a form of vanity and self-adulation - and therefore contrary to the Spirit of grace - as is an over-concern for achieving it. Although the apostle Peter said that a woman's beauty should not be outward only, he did not preclude or forbid the adornment of the body (1 Pet. 3:3).
Women cannot wear makeup because it is a heathen practice. "Dye for the hair, paint for the face, and mascara for the eyes, makes the present society a strange mixture of artificiality and hypocrisy. The United Pentecostal Church has taken a position that all of these conditions are heathenistic in origin and date back to Queen Jezebel. . . . The scriptures give us a very decided understanding that the natural beauty of women. . . . demands every aspect of reality and natural appearance" (The P.A.S.T.O.R.S. Course: Soteriology, Book Four of Five, p. 72). Many conventions that are heathen in origin have been allowed in different times and cultures. The names of the months and the days of the week on the calendar all come from heathen or non-Christian sources, yet they are used by all without concern. The use of cosmetics extends back to ancient Egypt and elsewhere, predating Jezebel. Women in the most ancient of societies, including Israel, all used some form of makeup. There is no explicit biblical injunction against cosmetics per se.

Deuteronomy 6:4 - Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one.

Genesis 1:26- 27; 11:5-9 - Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.; But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the men were building. The LORD said, "If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them. Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other." So the LORD scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city. That is why it was called Babel --because there the LORD confused the language of the whole world. From there the LORD scattered them over the face of the whole earth.

Psalm 2:7 - I will proclaim the decree of the LORD: He said to me, "You are my Son[4] ; today I have become your Father.

Isaiah 6:8, 9 - Then I heard the voice of the Lord saying, "Whom shall I send? And who will go for us?" And I said, "Here am I. Send me!" He said, "Go and tell this people: "`Be ever hearing, but never understanding; be ever seeing, but never perceiving.

Matthew 3:16-17;28:19 - As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, "This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased." ;Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit

John 17:1-5 - After Jesus said this, he looked toward heaven and prayed: "Father, the time has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may glorify you. For you granted him authority over all people that he might give eternal life to all those you have given him. Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent. I have brought you glory on earth by completing the work you gave me to do. And now, Father, glorify me in your presence with the glory I had with you before the world began.

2 Corinthians 13:14 - May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.

1 Corinthians 8:6 - yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for whom we live; and there is but one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things came and through whom we live.

John 5:31-32; 8:16-18 - "If I testify about myself, my testimony is not valid. There is another who testifies in my favor, and I know that his testimony about me is valid. ; But if I do judge, my decisions are right, because I am not alone. I stand with the Father, who sent me. In your own Law it is written that the testimony of two men is valid. I am one who testifies for myself; my other witness is the Father, who sent me."

John 3:17 - For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him.

Galatians 4:4 - But when the time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under law,

1 John 4:10 - This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins.

John 3:35; 17:23-26 - The Father loves the Son and has placed everything in his hands. ; I in them and you in me. May they be brought to complete unity to let the world know that you sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me. "Father, I want those you have given me to be with me where I am, and to see my glory, the glory you have given me because you loved me before the creation of the world. "Righteous Father, though the world does not know you, I know you, and they know that you have sent me. I have made you known to them, and will continue to make you known in order that the love you have for me may be in them and that I myself may be in them."

Matthew 5:18 KJV - For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

Malachi 2:10 - Have we not all one Father? Did not one God create us? Why do we profane the covenant of our fathers by breaking faith with one another?

Matthew 26:39 - Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, "My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will."

Isaiah 9:6 - For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor,[2] Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

John 14:9 - Jesus answered: "Don't you know me, Philip, even after I have been among you such a long time? Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, `Show us the Father'?

Hebrews 1:2 - but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he made the universe.

Hebrews 11:3 - By faith we understand that the universe was formed at God's command, so that what is seen was not made out of what was visible.

2 Corinthians 1:3 - Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of compassion and the God of all comfort,

John 10:30 - I and the Father are one."

John 14:9 - Jesus answered: "Don't you know me, Philip, even after I have been among you such a long time? Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, `Show us the Father'?

John 14:6 - Jesus answered, "I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.

John 1:1-5 - In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and that life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, but the darkness has not understood it.

John 14:16, 26, 15:26 - And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor to be with you forever-- ; But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you. ; "When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me.

Acts 2:33 - Exalted to the right hand of God, he has received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit and has poured out what you now see and hear.

Hebrews 9:14 - How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!

Hebrews 13:8 - Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.

John 4:8 - (His disciples had gone into the town to buy food.)

John 14:17, 18 - the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you. I will not leave you as orphans; I will come to you.

Mark 16:16 - Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned.

Luke 24:47 - and repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.

Acts 2:38 - Peter replied, "Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Isaiah 64:6 - All of us have become like one who is unclean, and all our righteous acts are like filthy rags; we all shrivel up like a leaf, and like the wind our sins sweep us away.

Hebrews 12:14 - Make every effort to live in peace with all men and to be holy; without holiness no one will see the Lord.

Ephesians 2:8 -9 - For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith--and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God-- not by works, so that no one can boast.

Romans 4:5 - 6 - However, to the man who does not work but trusts God who justifies the wicked, his faith is credited as righteousness. David says the same thing when he speaks of the blessedness of the man to whom God credits righteousness apart from works:

Titus 3:5 - he saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit,

Ephesians 2:4 - 5 - But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions--it is by grace you have been saved.

1 John 2:1 - 2 - My dear children, I write this to you so that you will not sin. But if anybody does sin, we have one who speaks to the Father in our defense--Jesus Christ, the Righteous One. He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world.

1 Corinthians 5:9 - 10 - I have written you in my letter not to associate with sexually immoral people-- not at all meaning the people of this world who are immoral, or the greedy and swindlers, or idolaters. In that case you would have to leave this world.

1 Corinthians 10:29 - the other man's conscience, I mean, not yours. For why should my freedom be judged by another's conscience?

Romans 14:22 - So whatever you believe about these things keep between yourself and God. Blessed is the man who does not condemn himself by what he approves.

1 Timothy 2:9, 10 - I also want women to dress modestly, with decency and propriety, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or expensive clothes, but with good deeds, appropriate for women who profess to worship God.

1 Peter 3:3 - 5 - Your beauty should not come from outward adornment, such as braided hair and the wearing of gold jewelry and fine clothes. Instead, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God's sight. For this is the way the holy women of the past who put their hope in God used to make themselves beautiful. They were submissive to their own husbands,

Chapter excerpted from Charts of Cults, Sects, and Religious Movements by Dr. H. Wayne House, copyright © 2001. Used by permission of Zondervan. This material is not to be electronically transferred. Down-load for personal use only. Charts of Cults, Sects, and Religious Movements may be purchased for a total of $23 by calling the Issues, Etc. resource line at 1-800-737-0172.

Management Techniques Incorporated has provided this article archive expressly for Issues, Etc. The articles in this archive have been formatted converted for internet use, by Management Techniques, Inc.
Contact MTI webmaster